culture of Romania, a relatively new country and only recently an independent force in the geopolitical sphere. By an examination of Romanias history, from its founding in the latter half of the nineteenth century through its participation in the two World Wars, through its Soviet domination and to the merging democracy that the country is today, the notions, values, and perspectives of the people can be ascertained. The use of three different frameworks for developing an understanding and definition of particular cultures and cultural elements will be applied to this study of Romanian history in order to better understand this nations culture in a comprehensive manner.
Romania was formed as a nation in 1959 from the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which had been under the dominion of the Ottoman Empire for several hundred years (CIA 2011; USDOS 2011). Two millennia prior, the region had been part of the Byzantine Empire, and the Eastern Orthodox denominations of Christianity have remained the majority religion of the peoples of this region regardless of their official nationality, something that continues to this day (BBC 2011; CIA 2011). The peoples of this region have also been bound by a common language for some time; Romanian is one of the Latinate or Romance languages, and is also spoken in neighboring countries (USDOS 2011).
Political events in the twentieth century have created certain complications and new trends in Romanian culture, however.
In the First World War, Romania entered on the side of the Allies, and obtained Transylvania — a region between Romania and Hungary and populated by ethnically and linguistically different peoples (BBC 2011). In the Second World War, however, Romania joined with the Axis powers in their attack on the Soviet Union, and this partially contributed to the takeover of Romania by the Soviets at the end of the war, leading to decades of harsh domination (CIS 2011; USDOS 2011). This domination did not end despite the growing independence of the Romanian government in the late 1950s, or even with full independence in 1968, but instead the Communist Party leaders in Romania retained the same sort of control, and the same leaders even stayed in place after the fall of communism (USODS 2011). For the past fifteen years, however, the country has dramatically democratized and is now a member of the EU (BBC 2011).
According to Hofstedes analysis of culture, Romania has a traditionally high power distance index, though this appears to be.